Ferromagnetism in Defected TMD (MoX2, X = S, Se) Monolayer and Its Sustainability under O2, O3, and H2O Gas Exposure: DFT Study

Anjna Devi, Neha Dhiman, Narender Kumar, Wadha Alfalasi, Arun Kumar, P. K. Ahluwalia, Amarjeet Singh, Nacir Tit

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Spin-polarized density-functional theory (DFT) has been employed to study the effects of atmospheric gases on the electronic and magnetic properties of a defective transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD) monolayer, MoX2 with X = S or Se. This study focuses on three single vacancies: (i) molybdenum “VMo”; (ii) chalcogenide “VX”; and (iii) di-chalcogenide “VX2”. Five different samples of sizes ranging from 4 × 4 to 8 × 8 primitive cells (PCs) were considered in order to assess the effect of vacancy–vacancy interaction. The results showed that all defected samples were paramagnetic semiconductors, except in the case of VMo in MoSe2, which yielded a magnetic moment of 3.99 μB that was independent of the sample size. Moreover, the samples of MoSe2 with VMo and sizes of 4 × 4 and 5 × 5 PCs exhibited half-metallicity, where the spin-up state becomes conductive and is predominantly composed of (Formula presented.) and (Formula presented.) orbital mixing attributed to Mo atoms located in the neighborhood of VMo. The requirement for the establishment of half-metallicity is confirmed to be the provision of ferromagnetic-coupling (FMC) interactions between localized magnetic moments (such as VMo). The critical distance for the existence of FMC is estimated to be (Formula presented.) 16 Å, which allows small sample sizes in MoSe2 to exhibit half-metallicity while the FMC represents the ground state. The adsorption of atmospheric gases (H2O, O2, O3) can drastically change the electronic and magnetic properties, for instance, it can demolish the half-metallicity characteristics. Hence, the maintenance of half-metallicity requires keeping the samples isolated from the atmosphere. We benchmarked our theoretical results with the available data in the literature throughout our study. The conditions that govern the appearance/disappearance of half-metallicity are of great relevance for spintronic device applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1642
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - May 2023


  • electronic and magnetic properties
  • ferromagnetism
  • half-metallicity
  • magnetic impurity and defect levels
  • spin-polarized DFT
  • spintronics
  • transition-metal di-chalcogenides

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemical Engineering
  • General Materials Science


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