Formation of hydroxyapatite-polyphosphazene polymer composites at physiologic temperature

Y. E. Greish, J. D. Bender, S. Lakshmi, P. W. Brown, H. R. Allcock, C. T. Laurencin

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43 Citations (Scopus)


Aspects of the formation of bone analog composites at 37°C are described. The composites are composed of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and the calcium salt of a biocompatible polymer and are capable of forming under in vivo conditions. Composite formation involves the formation of monolithic HAp from particulate calcium phosphate precursors while Ca ions liberated to the aqueous medium in which this reaction is occurring form crosslinks with the acidic polymer. The reactants are poly[bis(carboxylatophenoxy)phosphazene] (acid-PCPP), tetracalcium phosphate [Ca4(PO4)2O, TetCP], and anhydrous dicalcium phosphate (CaHPO4, DCPA). The effects of the proportion of polymer (5, 10, or 15 wt %) on the kinetics of HAp formation were studied. Compositional evolution of the solid calcium phosphates present was followed by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy analyses. HAp formation through a dissolution-precipitation process provided a mildly alkaline medium suitable for deprotonation of the acid-PCPP and for the formation of the calcium crosslinks, as monitored by infrared spectroscopy. Concurrence of crosslinking of the polymer and HAp formation was established, indicating true composite formation can be realized at physiologic temperature.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)416-425
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - May 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Composites
  • Hydroxyapatite
  • Kinetics
  • Low temperature
  • Polyphosphazene

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Metals and Alloys


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