Fortification with Free Amino Acids Affects Acrylamide Content in Yeast Leavened Bread

Arwa Mustafa, Roger Andersson, Afaf Kamal-Eldin, Per Åman

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

10 Citations (Scopus)


Acrylamide, especially formed in heated carbohydrate-rich foods, is a known neurotoxin, a carcinogen in animals, and a probable carcinogen in humans. Among cereal products, breads, rolls, pastries, biscuits, and breakfast cereals are the main foods contributing to acrylamide intake. Free asparagine in dough is the limiting precursor for acrylamide formation during baking. This chapter reviews different measures that can be used to reduce the level of acrylamide in bread. These include choice of ingredients (flour and milling fractions, added amino acids, salts, organic acids, antioxidants, and enzymes), yeast fermentation, and heating protocols during baking. Some of these mitigation measures lead to compromise in product quality (color, flavor, and leavening), but these can be optimized or different measures can be combined to obtain the desired quality. Addition of metal ions might lead to the formation of toxic compounds such as hydroxymethylfurfural and should be used with care. The addition of the amino acid glycine, and possibly other amino acids, is particularly interesting because it improves bread color and might compete with asparagine and hinder acrylamide formation.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationFlour and Breads and their Fortification in Health and Disease Prevention
Number of pages11
ISBN (Electronic)9780123808868
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 2011
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Engineering
  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences


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