Gastrin induces parathyroid hormone-like hormone expression in gastric parietal cells

Asma Al Menhali, Theresa M. Keeley, Elise S. Demitrack, Linda C. Samuelson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Parietal cells play a fundamental role in stomach maintenance, not only by creating a pathogen-free environment through the production of gastric acid, but also by secreting growth factors important for homeostasis of the gastric epithelium. The gastrointestinal hormone gastrin is known to be a central regulator of both parietal cell function and gastric epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation. Our previous gene expression profiling studies of mouse stomach identified parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH) as a potential gastrin-regulated gastric growth factor. Although PTHLH is commonly overexpressed in gastric tumors, its normal expression, function, and regulation in the stomach are poorly understood. In this study we used pharmacologic and genetic mouse models as well as human gastric cancer cell lines to determine the cellular localization and regulation of this growth factor by the hormone gastrin. Analysis of PthlhLacZ/+ knock-in reporter mice localized Pthlh expression to parietal cells in the gastric corpus. Regulation by gastrin was demonstrated by increased Pthlh mRNA abundance after acute gastrin treatment in wild-type mice and reduced expression in gastrin-deficient mice. PTHLH transcripts were also observed in normal human stomach as well as in human gastric cancer cell lines. Gastrin treatment of AGS-E gastric cancer cells induced a rapid and robust increase in numerous PTHLH mRNA isoforms. This induction was largely due to increased transcriptional initiation, although analysis of mRNA halflife showed that gastrin treatment also extended the half-life of PTHLH mRNA, suggesting that gastrin regulates expression by both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We show that the growth factor parathyroid hormone-like hormone (PTHLH) is expressed in acid-secreting parietal cells of the mouse stomach. We define the specific PTHLH mRNA isoforms expressed in human stomach and in human gastric cancer cell lines and show that gastrin induces PTHLH expression via transcription activation and mRNA stabilization. Our findings suggest that PTHLH is a gastrin-regulated growth factor that might contribute to gastric epithelial cell homeostasis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)G649-G657
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 8 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • AU-rich element
  • Growth factor
  • PTHrP
  • Parathyroid hormone-related protein
  • Stomach
  • mRNA stability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Hepatology
  • Gastroenterology
  • Physiology (medical)


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