Purpose. To evaluate sonographic measurements of the fetal liver, fetal abdominal fat layer, interventricular septum, and Wharton's jelly area between 21 and 24 weeks' gestation in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods. A total of 123 consecutive healthy pregnant women underwent sonographic examination at 21-24 weeks' gestational age. The measurements included fetal biometry, detailed anomaly scan, and fetal body composition measurements (subcutaneous fat, liver size, cardiac muscle thickness, and Wharton's jelly area). GDM was confirmed by way of a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test using World Health Organization criteria within 1 week of the examination. Results. Nineteen (15.4%) women were diagnosed with GDM, while 104 (84.6%) women were without GDM. The mean fetal liver length was 36 mm (95% CI 32-37) in women with GDM and 31 mm (95% CI 30-33) in women without GDM (p < 0.01). Liver enlargement was related to maternal fasting glucose levels and not 2-hour postprandial levels. There was no significant difference in the fetal biometric and other fetal body measurements between the 2 groups. Conclusions. The findings of this study suggest that midtrimester fetal liver length appears to be longer in GDM than in normal pregnancies. However, the fetal abdominal fat layer, interventricular septum, and Wharton's jelly were not affected. Nevertheless, further, larger randomized studies are required to confirm these findings.
- Fetal body composition
- Gestational diabetes mellitus
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging