Global data analysis and risk factors associated with morbidity and mortality of COVID-19

Sina Salajegheh Tazerji, Fatemeh Shahabinejad, Mahya Tokasi, Mohammad Ali Rad, Muhammad Sajjad Khan, Muhammad Safdar, Krzysztof J. Filipiak, Lukasz Szarpak, Tomasz Dzieciatkowski, Jan Jurgiel, Phelipe Magalhães Duarte, Md Tanvir Rahman, Md Abdus Sobur, Md Saiful Islam, Adnan Ahmed, Mohamed N.F. Shaheen, Awad A. Shehata, Rasha Gharieb, Mohamed Fawzy, Yashpal Singh MalikNagaraj Jaganathasamy, Vinodhkumar Obli Rajendran, Kannan Subbaram, P. Shaik Syed Ali, Sheeza Ali, Saif Ur Rehman, Mehmet Ozaslan, Gulfaraz Khan, Muhammad Saeed, Umair Younas, Safdar Imran, Yasmeen Junejo, Parmida Arabkarami, Unarose Hogan, Alfonso J. Rodriguez-Morales

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

53 Citations (Scopus)


This review was focused on global data analysis and risk factors associated with morbidity and mortality of coronavirus disease 2019 from different countries, including Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Central Eastern Europe, Egypt, India, Iran, Pakistan, and South Asia, Africa, Turkey and UAE. Male showed higher confirmed and death cases compared to females in most of the countries. In addition, the case fatality ratio (CFR) for males was higher than for females. This gender variation in COVID-19 cases may be due to males' cultural activities, but similar variations in the number of COVID-19 affected males and females globally. Variations in the immune system can illustrate this divergent risk comparatively higher in males than females. The female immune system may have an edge to detect pathogens slightly earlier. In addition, women show comparatively higher innate and adaptive immune responses than men, which might be explained by the high density of immune-related genes in the X chromosome. Furthermore, SARS-CoV-2 viruses use angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) to enter the host cell, and men contain higher ACE2 than females. Therefore, males may be more vulnerable to COVID-19 than females. In addition, smoking habit also makes men susceptible to COVID-19. Considering the age-wise distribution, children and older adults were less infected than other age groups and the death rate. On the contrary, more death in the older group may be associated with less immune system function. In addition, most of these group have comorbidities like diabetes, high pressure, low lungs and kidney function, and other chronic diseases. Due to the substantial economic losses and the numerous infected people and deaths, research examining the features of the COVID-19 epidemic is essential to gain insight into mitigating its impact in the future and preparedness for any future epidemics.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101505
JournalGene Reports
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022


  • COVID-19
  • Epidemiology
  • Mortality
  • One-health
  • Pandemic
  • SARS-CoV-2

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics


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