Graphene-based 3D scaffolds in tissue engineering: Fabrication, applications, and future scope in liver tissue engineering

Renu Geetha Bai, Kasturi Muthoosamy, Sivakumar Manickam, Ali Hilal-Alnaqbi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

141 Citations (Scopus)


Tissue engineering embraces the potential of recreating and replacing defective body parts by advancements in the medical field. Being a biocompatible nanomaterial with outstanding physical, chemical, optical, and biological properties, graphene-based materials were successfully employed in creating the perfect scaffold for a range of organs, starting from the skin through to the brain. Investigations on 2D and 3D tissue culture scaffolds incorporated with graphene or its derivatives have revealed the capability of this carbon material in mimicking in vivo environment. The porous morphology, great surface area, selective permeability of gases, excellent mechanical strength, good thermal and electrical conductivity, good optical properties, and biodegradability enable graphene materials to be the best component for scaffold engineering. Along with the apt microenvironment, this material was found to be efficient in differentiating stem cells into specific cell types. Furthermore, the scope of graphene nanomaterials in liver tissue engineering as a promising biomaterial is also discussed. This review critically looks into the unlimited potential of graphene-based nanomaterials in future tissue engineering and regenerative therapy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5753-5783
Number of pages31
JournalInternational Journal of Nanomedicine
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • 3D
  • Graphene
  • Liver
  • Microenvironment
  • Regenerative therapy
  • Scaffold
  • Stem cells
  • Tissue engineering

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Bioengineering
  • Biomaterials
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Organic Chemistry


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