Graphitic carbon nitride (g–C3N4)–assisted materials for the detection and remediation of hazardous gases and VOCs

Naveen Kumar, Monika Kumari, Mohammed Ismael, Muhammad Tahir, Raj Kishore Sharma, Kavitha Kumari, Janardhan Reddy Koduru, Pardeep Singh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


Graphitic carbon nitride (g–C3N4)–based materials are attracting attention for their unique properties, such as low-cost, chemical stability, facile synthesis, adjustable electronic structure, and optical properties. These facilitate the use of g-C3N4 to design better photocatalytic and sensing materials. Environmental pollution by hazardous gases and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) can be monitored and controlled using eco-friendly g–C3N4– photocatalysts. Firstly, this review introduces the structure, optical and electronic properties of C3N4 and C3N4 assisted materials, followed by various synthesis strategies. In continuation, binary and ternary nanocomposites of C3N4 with metal oxides, sulfides, noble metals, and graphene are elaborated. g-C3N4/metal oxide composites exhibited better charge separation that leads to enhancement in photocatalytic properties. g-C3N4/noble metal composites possess higher photocatalytic activities due to the surface plasmon effects of metals. Ternary composites by the presence of dual heterojunctions improve properties of g-C3N4 for enhanced photocatalytic application. In the later part, we have summarised the application of g-C3N4 and its assisted materials for sensing toxic gases and VOCs and decontaminating NOx and VOCs by photocatalysis. Composites of g-C3N4 with metal and metal oxide give comparatively better results. This review is expected to bring a new sketch for developing g–C3N4–based photocatalysts and sensors with practical applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number116149
JournalEnvironmental Research
Publication statusPublished - Aug 15 2023


  • Carbon nitride
  • Nanocomposites
  • Pollutants
  • Sensing
  • VOC

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • General Environmental Science


Dive into the research topics of 'Graphitic carbon nitride (g–C3N4)–assisted materials for the detection and remediation of hazardous gases and VOCs'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this