Gravitational search algorithm: R is better than R2?

Mohamad Nizam Aliman, Khairul Hamimah Abas, Muhammad Sharfi Najib, Nor Azlina Ab Aziz, Mohd Saberi Mohamad, Zuwairie Ibrahim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA) is a metaheuristic population-based optimization algorithm inspired by the Newtonian law of gravity and law of motion. Ever since it was introduced in 2009, GSA has been employed to solve various optimization problems. Despite its superior performance, GSA has a fundamental problem. It has been revealed that the force calculation in GSA is not genuinely based on the Newtonian law of gravity. Based on the Newtonian law of gravity, force between two masses in the universe is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. However, in the original GSA, R is used instead of R2. In this paper, the performance of GSA is re-evaluated considering the square of the distance between masses, R2. The CEC2014 benchmark functions for real-parameter single objective optimization problems are employed in the evaluation. An important finding is that by considering the square of the distance between masses, R2, significant improvement over the original GSA is observed provided a large gravitational constant should be used at the beginning of the optimization process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4904-4910
Number of pages7
JournalARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Gravitational search algorithm
  • Law of motion
  • Newtonian law of gravity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Engineering


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