HIV-1 Clade D Is Associated with Increased Rates of CD4 Decline in a Kenyan Cohort

Lyle R. McKinnon, Nico J. Nagelkerke, Rupert Kaul, Souradet Y. Shaw, Rupert Capina, Ma Luo, Anthony Kariri, Winnie Apidi, Makobu Kimani, Charles Wachihi, Walter Jaoko, A. Omu Anzala, Joshua Kimani, T. Blake Ball, Francis A. Plummer

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6 Citations (Scopus)


HIV-1 is grouped phylogenetically into clades, which may impact rates of HIV-1 disease progression. Clade D infection in particular has been shown to be more pathogenic. Here we confirm in a Nairobi-based prospective female sex worker cohort (1985-2004) that Clade D (n = 54) is associated with a more rapid CD4 decline than clade A1 (n = 150, 20.6% vs 13.4% decline per year, 1.53-fold increase, p = 0.015). This was independent of "protective" HLA and country of origin (p = 0.053), which in turn were also independent predictors of the rate of CD4 decline (p = 0.026 and 0.005, respectively). These data confirm that clade D is more pathogenic than clade A1. The precise reason for this difference is currently unclear, and requires further study. This is first study to demonstrate difference in HIV-1 disease progression between clades while controlling for protective HLA alleles.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere49797
JournalPLoS ONE
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 21 2012
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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