Hybrid externally bonded/mechanically fastened fiber-reinforced polymer for RC beam strengthening

Usama Ebead

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Citations (Scopus)


This study examines a newly developed technique for the flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) beams. This technique is a combination of the externally bonded (EB) and mechanically fastened (MF) fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) systems. It features the use of nylon anchors to be inserted inside the concrete prior to installing the fasteners. The hybrid EB/MF-FRP-strengthened specimens showed higher load capacity and post-cracking stiffness than those of the corresponding MF-FRP counterparts. Extending the FRP strips for the entire beam span is necessary for achieving the noticeable enhancement of the load capacity and stiffness with this hybrid EB/MF-FRP system. For such a system, the failure of the strengthened beams is associated with diagonal cracks at the locations of fasteners near the FRP strip ends. These cracks are initiated due to fastener rotation and bearing damage, resulting in a noticeable slip of the FRP strips with respect to the soffit of the beams.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)669-678
Number of pages10
JournalACI Structural Journal
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2011


  • Externally bonded fiber-reinforced polymer
  • Fasteners
  • Mechanically fastened fiber-reinforced polymer
  • Seinforced concrete beams
  • Strengthening

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction


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