Immunotherapy and immunoevasion of colorectal cancer

Mohammad Al Zein, Mona Boukhdoud, Hadi Shammaa, Hadi Mouslem, Lemir Majed El Ayoubi, Rabah Iratni, Khodr Issa, Maha Khachab, Hazem I. Assi, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Ali H. Eid

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


The tremendous success of immunotherapy in clinical trials has led to its establishment as a new pillar of cancer therapy. However, little clinical efficacy has been achieved in microsatellite stable colorectal cancer (MSS-CRC), which constitutes most CRC tumors. Here, we discuss the molecular and genetic heterogeneity of CRC. We review the immune escape mechanisms, and focus on the latest advances in immunotherapy as a treatment modality for CRC. By providing a better understanding of the tumor microenvironment (TME) and the molecular mechanisms underlying immunoevasion, this review offers an insight into developing therapeutic strategies that are effective for patients with various subsets of CRC.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103669
JournalDrug Discovery Today
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2023


  • CTLA-4
  • PD-1
  • adoptive cell therapy
  • cancer vaccines
  • colorectal cancer
  • immune checkpoint inhibitor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery


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