Incidence, predictors, and clinical outcomes of permanent pacemaker insertion following transcatheter aortic valve implantation in an Arab population

Fares Tofailahmed Rajah, Abdulkhaliq Ali Alaamiri, Mohammed Mahmoodurrahman, Thamer Saad Alhowaish, Shaya Fahad Aldosari, Abdulwahab Omer Hussain, Emad Mohammad Masuadi, Ahmed A. Arifi, Mohammed Ali Balgaith, Kamal Mohammed Ayoub, Fawaz Q. Almutairi, Haitham Ahmed Alanazi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: Conduction defects requiring permanent pacemaker insertion (PPI) are one of the most common complications after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence and predictors of this complication as well as to assess clinical outcomes of patients requiring PPI after TAVI in an Arab population. Methods: In this single-center, retrospective cohort analysis, all patients who underwent TAVI from 2010 to 2018 were reviewed; seventy-four independent variables were collected per patient, and multivariate analysis was performed to identify predictors. In-hospital outcomes were examined as well as 30-day and 1-year endpoints as defined by the Valve Academic Research Consortium-2. Results: There were 48 of 170 patients (28.2%) who required PPI within 30 days of TAVI. The median time from TAVI to PPI was 2 days (interquartile range: 0 to 5 days). Positive predictors of 30-day PPI were prior right bundle branch block (odds ratio [OR]: 4.10; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.37 to 0.79; p < 0.001), post-procedural development of new right bundle branch block (OR: 3.59; 95% CI: 1.07 to 12.03; p = 0.038), post-procedural development of new left bundle branch block (LBBB) (OR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.21 to 2.84; p = 0.005), post-procedural prolongation of PR interval (OR: 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.02; p < 0.001), and post-procedural QRS duration (OR: 1.01; 95% CI: 1.00 to 1.03; p = 0.02). However, post-procedural development of new LBBB no longer remained a significant predictor of PPI after excluding six patients with LBBB who underwent prophylactic PPI (p = 0.093). Negative predictors of 30-day PPI were the presence of diabetes (OR: 0.54; 95% CI: 037 to 0.79; p = 0.001), the use of prosthesis size 29 compared to 23 (OR: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.35 to 0.87; p = 0.010), and the use of prosthesis size 26 compared to 23 (OR: 0.31; 95% CI: 0.20 to 0.50; p < 0.001). PPI was associated with longer median hospital stay, but the result was borderline significant after multivariate adjustment (19 vs. 14 days; p = 0.052). There was no statistically significant difference in 30-day and 1-year clinical outcomes. Conclusion: One-third of patients required PPI after TAVI. Several risk factors can identify patients at risk for PPI particularly pre-existing right bundle branch block. Further studies are needed to assess the association between PPI and negative clinical outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)545-554
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Permanent pacemaker implantation
  • Permanent pacemaker insertion
  • PPI
  • TAVI
  • Transcatheter aortic valve implantation
  • Transcatheter aortic valve replacement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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