Individual profiles of spatio-temporal coordination in high intensity swimming

Pedro Figueiredo, Ludovic Seifert, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, Ricardo J. Fernandes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of the present study was to examine the inter-subject variability in inter-arm coordination during front crawl swimming at high intensity. Ten male competitive swimmers swam 200. m front crawl at race pace. Two above water and four underwater cameras videotaped the test and APAS was used to assess the 3D anatomical points position and to calculate, afterwards, the angular position, velocity and the continuous relative phase, which was used to analyze upper limbs coupling during two arm stroke cycles for each 50. m lap of the 200. m front crawl event. The kinematics of the two arm stroke cycles was filtered and normalized to the total cycle duration. A significant decrease, caused by fatigue, was observed in the biomechanical and coordinative (temporal) parameters. The topography of the mean continuous relative phase curve showed a higher inter-subject variability between two groups (63.1° vs. 76.0°; p< .05), suggesting that several profiles of inter-limb coordination exist. Two clusters arose from the coordination profiling, which mainly stemmed from organismic constraints (i.e., the swimmer's technique).

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1200-1212
Number of pages13
JournalHuman Movement Science
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Cluster analysis
  • Fatigue
  • Motor control
  • Swimming

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology


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