Information sources, attitudes, and practices of Self-Medication by Jordanian patients: A cross-sectional study

Walid Al-Qerem, Afnan Bargooth, Anan Jarab, Amal Akour, Shrouq Abu Heshmeh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Background and Objective: Self-medication (SM) has significantly increased worldwide in the past decades, which may have detrimental health consequences including antimicrobial resistance, adverse drug reactions, drug-drug interaction, and dependency. Although several studies have evaluated the extent of SM, such studies are still limited in Jordan. The aim of this study was to explore sources of SM information, attitudes toward SM and the practice of SM and its associated factors. Methods: The data of this cross-sectional study was collected between February and July 2022. A validated questionnaire was distributed to patients attending pharmacies from different locations in Jordan. The survey evaluated sources of information and attitudes toward SM, extent of SM practice, and attitudes towards SM, symptoms that the participants treat with SM and those that usually requires medical doctor consolation, followed by questions about the classes of medications mostly used for SM and the reasons for SM. Results and Discussion: The study enrolled 695 Jordanian adults. The most reported indications for SM included headache (86.9 %), flu (76.4 %), and fever (69.6 %). The most common causes for SM included previous knowledge about the diseases and its treatments (84.2 %), and full knowledge of the medicine to be purchased (55.2 %). Results of the ordinal regression showed that physician counseling frequency was positively and significantly associated with “not being on chronic medication” (p-value = 0.001), and having a positive SM attitude level (p-value = 0.019), while negatively correlated with being in medical field (p-value < 0.001), having no children (p-value = 0.009), and relaying on non-scientific sources to obtain information for SM (p-value = 0.014). The frequency of SM practice was positively associated with being in medical field (p-value < 0.001, having no insurance (p-value < 0.001), and relaying on nonscientific sources (p-value = 0.017). Lastly, having a positive SM attitude level (p-value < 0.001) and not being on chronic medications (p-value = 0.007) were associated with decreased SM practice. Conclusion: The study participants demonstrated increased SM practice due to the wrong perceptions toward SM and the reliance on non-scientific source of information about SM practice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)482-491
Number of pages10
JournalSaudi Pharmaceutical Journal
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2023


  • Attitude
  • Practice
  • Self-Medication
  • Side effects
  • Source of information

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmaceutical Science


Dive into the research topics of 'Information sources, attitudes, and practices of Self-Medication by Jordanian patients: A cross-sectional study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this