Instant detection of porosity in gas metal arc welding by using probability density distribution and control chart

Dinu Thomas Thekkuden, A. Santhakumari, A. Sumesh, Abdel Hamid I. Mourad, K. Rameshkumar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

37 Citations (Scopus)


A novel porosity detection technique from the voltage and current transients is introduced in this paper. An online weld monitoring that detects the porosity at an earlier stage is much demanding in the industry due to their adverse effects on structural integrity. In this research work, control chart and probability density distribution have been employed as tools to detect arc instability and weld porosity. The results showed that the pattern of probability density distribution changes for the defect and defect-free welds significantly. The mean and standard deviation control charts plotted with voltage clearly distinguished the quality of the weld based on sample points spread within or outside the control limits. For minute internal porosities, the sample points at the corresponding region in the standard deviation control chart were outside the limits whereas it is well within the control limits in the mean control chart. Inspector can predict the presence and near location of porosity using these tools by simple mathematical calculations easily and instantly. The results proved that the developed approach is successful and promising for the weld inspection.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4583-4606
Number of pages24
JournalInternational Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology
Issue number9-12
Publication statusPublished - Apr 1 2018


  • Control chart
  • Gas metal arc welding
  • Online monitoring
  • Porosity
  • Probability density distribution
  • Structural integrity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Software
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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