Interaction forces among two-dimensional bright solitons and many-soliton molecules

U. Al Khawaja

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


We consider two-dimensional bright matter-wave solitons in two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates. From the asymptotic form of their wave function, we derive an analytic expression for the force of interaction between solitons in the large separation limit, which turns out to decay with solitons separation Δ as F(Δ) exp(-Δ)/√Δ. Simulating the dynamics of two solitons using the relevant Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we obtain the force of the interaction for the full range of Δ, which turns out to be of molecular type. We show that many-soliton molecules can exist as a result of such a molecular-type of interaction. These include string-shaped, ring-shaped, or regular-lattice-shaped soliton molecules. By calculating their binding energy, we investigate the stability of these structures. Contrary to one-dimensional soliton molecules, which have no binding energy, two-dimensional molecules of a lattice of solitons with alternating phases are robust and have a negative binding energy. Lattices of size larger than 2×2 solitons have many discrete equilibrium values of the separation between two neighboring solitons.

Original languageEnglish
Article number056604
JournalPhysical Review E - Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 14 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Statistical and Nonlinear Physics
  • Statistics and Probability
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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