Intermediate HSS bracing members during seismic excitations: modeling, design, and behavior

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6 Citations (Scopus)


Concentric hollow structural section (HSS) bracing members are used frequently in steel framed structural systems to resist seismic excitations. Finite element modeling of the HSS braces that utilizes the true stressstrain curves produces hysteresis responses that are reasonable matches to the experimental response. True stress-strain curves are obtained from coupon tests or stub-column tests while utilizing an exponential function or strain hardening rule with a trial and error procedure to obtain the hysteresis behavior. In the current study, the true stress-strain curves are directly obtained from tests on stub-columns extracted from the full scale HSS bracing members away from the midlength plastic hinge after cyclic testing. Two experimental tests (Shaback 2001 and Haddad 2004) were used to validate the model. Results indicate that the stress-strain curves for these braces are not unique. A refined damage accumulation model for ultra-low-cycle fatigue is implemented to predict fracture of the brace tests. The refined damage model is then used in the finite element modeling to predict fracture of braces in a chevron braced frame of an eight-storey building subjected to selected ground motions analyzed using OpenSees program. Results indicate that all braces could sustain the selected earthquake records without fracture.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)148-162
Number of pages15
JournalFrontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 2018


  • FEM
  • HSS
  • damage model
  • stress-strain curves

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Architecture


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