Intracycle velocity variation of the body centre of mass in front crawl

Pedro Figueiredo, P. L. Kjendlie, J. P. Vilas-Boas, R. J. Fernandes

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Our aim was to determine the 3-dimensional intracycle velocity variation (IVV) of the body centre of mass during a 200-m front crawl event, and to analyse its relation with the segmental hand kinematics and the velocity (v) changes. 10 high-level male swimmers performed a 200-m front crawl swim at maximal intensity. 2 above- and 4 underwater cameras were used to record one complete non-breathing cycle for each 50-m lap, and APASystem was used for imaging processing. The coefficient of variation was calculated to assess the IVV in the horizontal (x), vertical (y), and lateral (z) axes; hand kinematics was also computed. IVV remained stable across the 200 m, and significant correlations were found between vx and vmaxx (r=0.55), vminx (r=0.68), IVVx (r= 0.45), and IVVz (r= 0.45) (all p0.01). In addition, IVVx was correlated with the backward horizontal amplitude normalized to stroke length (r=0.54), IVVy with hand angular velocity (r= 0.40), and IVVz with the elbow angle range in the pull phase (r= 0.37) (all p<0.05). This study shows the stability of the IVV (x,y,z), the inverse relation of the IVV (x, z) with v, the direct relation of the vmaxx and vminx with v, and the influence of the hand kinematics in the IVV.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)285-290
Number of pages6
JournalInternational Journal of Sports Medicine
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • 3-dimensional
  • biomechanics
  • front crawl
  • intracycle velocity variation
  • swimming

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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