Invited review: Camel milk–derived bioactive peptides and diabetes—Molecular view and perspectives

Mohammed Akli Ayoub, Pei Gee Yap, Priti Mudgil, Farheen Badrealam Khan, Irfa Anwar, Khalid Muhammad, Chee Yuen Gan, Sajid Maqsood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


In dairy science, camel milk (CM) constitutes a center of interest for scientists due to its known beneficial effect on diabetes as demonstrated in many in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies and trials. Overall, CM had positive effects on various parameters related to glucose transport and metabolism as well as the structural and functional properties of the pancreatic β-cells and insulin secretion. Thus, CM consumption may help manage diabetes; however, such a recommendation will become rationale and clinically conceivable only if the exact molecular mechanisms and pathways involved at the cellular levels are well understood. Moreover, the application of CM as an alternative antidiabetic tool may first require the identification of the exact bioactive molecules behind such antidiabetic properties. In this review, we describe the advances in our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms reported to be involved in the beneficial effects of CM in managing diabetes using different in vitro and in vivo models. This mainly includes the effects of CM on the different molecular pathways controlling (1) insulin receptor signaling and glucose uptake, (2) the pancreatic β-cell structure and function, and (3) the activity of key metabolic enzymes in glucose metabolism. Moreover, we described the current status of the identification of CM-derived bioactive peptides and their structure-activity relationship study and characterization in the context of molecular markers related to diabetes. Such an overview will not only enrich our scientific knowledge of the plausible mode of action of CM in diabetes but should ultimately rationalize the claim of the potential application of CM against diabetes. This will pave the way toward new directions and ideas for developing a new generation of antidiabetic products taking benefits from the chemical composition of CM.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)649-668
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Dairy Science
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2024


  • bioactive peptides
  • camel milk
  • diabetes
  • glucose metabolism
  • insulin receptor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Genetics


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