Irregularity and modular irregularity strength of wheels

Martin Bača, Muhammad Imran, Andrea Semaničová-Feňovčíková

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


It is easily observed that the vertices of a simple graph cannot have pairwise distinct degrees. This means that no simple graph of the order of at least two is, in this way, irregular. However, a multigraph can be irregular. Chartrand et al., in 1988, posed the following problem: in a loopless multigraph, how can one determine the fewest parallel edges required to ensure that all vertices have distinct degrees? This problem is known as the graph labeling problem and, for its solution, Chartrand et al. introduced irregular assignments. The irregularity strength of a graph G is known as the maximal edge label used in an irregular assignment, minimized over all irregular assignments. Thus, the irregularity strength of a simple graph G is equal to the smallest maximum multiplicity of an edge of G in order to create an irregular multigraph from G. In the present paper, we show the existence of a required irregular labeling scheme that proves the exact value of the irregularity strength of wheels. Then, we modify this irregular mapping in six cases and obtain labelings that determine the exact value of the modular irregularity strength of wheels as a natural modification of the irregularity strength.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2710
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2021


  • (Modular) irregularity strength
  • Irregular assignment
  • Wheel

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Mathematics


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