Isolation and Characterization of Cellulose Nanocrystals from Date Palm Waste

Mohsin Raza, Basim Abu-Jdayil, Fawzi Banat, Ali H. Al-Marzouqi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)


This study presents the isolation, characterization, and kinetic analyses of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) from date palm waste in the United Arab Emirates. After bleaching date palm stem waste with acidified NaClO2 and delignification via NaOH treatments, cellulose was extracted. Mineral acid hydrolysis (62 wt % H2SO4) was performed at 45 °C for 45 min to produce crystalline nanocellulose. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and chemical composition analysis confirmed the removal of noncellulosic constituents. The crystallinity index increased gradually with chemical treatments, according to the obtained X-ray diffraction (XRD) results. Thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry results revealed that the CNC has high thermal stability. The Coats-Redfern method was used to determine the kinetic parameters. The kinetic analysis confirmed that CNC has more activation energy than cellulose and thus confirms its compact and resistive crystalline structure. This has been attributable to the stronger hydrogen bonding in CNC crystalline domains than that in cellulose crystalline domains. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that lignin and hemicellulose were eliminated after chemical pretreatments, and CNC with a rodlike shape was obtained after hydrolysis. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy confirmed the nanoscale of crystalline cellulose. ζ potential analysis indicated that the CNC afforded a stable suspension (-29.27 mV), which is less prone to flocculation. Kinetic analyses of cellulose and cellulose nanocrystals isolated from date palm waste are useful for making composites and designing selective pyrolysis reactors.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)25366-25379
Number of pages14
JournalACS Omega
Issue number29
Publication statusPublished - Jul 26 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering


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