Kaempferol, a flavonoid, contains a plethora of therapeutic properties and has demonstrated its efficacy against cancer. This study aims to unravel the molecular targets that are being modulated by kaempferol on HeLa cells. Various assays were performed, namely: MTT assay, flow cytometry to analyze DNA content and quantitate apoptosis. Quantitative PCR and protein profiling were performed to evaluate the modulated manifestation of different genes involved in apoptosis, cell growth and inflammation. Kaempferol exhibited reduction in cell viability of HeLa cells (IC50 = 50 µM 48 h), whereas it did not show any significant effect on viability of the AC-16 cell line. Kaempferol-impacted apoptosis was definitive, as it induced DNA fragmentation, caused disruption of membrane potential, accumulation of cells in the G2-M phase and augmented early apoptosis. Consistently, kaempferol induced apoptosis in HeLa cells by modulating the expression of various genes at both transcript and protein levels. It upregulated the expression of pro-apoptotic genes, including APAF1, BAX, BAD, Caspases 3, and 9, etc., at the transcript level and Bad, Bax, p27, p53, p21, Caspases 3 and 8 etc. at the protein level, while it downregulated the expression of pro-survival gene BCL-2, BIRC8, MCL-1, XIAP, and NAIP at the transcript level and Bcl-2, XIAP, Livin, clap-2 at the protein level. Kaempferol attenuated oxidative stress by upregulating GSH activity and anti-inflammatory response by suppressing NF-kB pathways. Moreover, kaempferol averted rampant cell division and induced apoptosis by modulating AKT/MTOR and MAP kinase pathways. Hence, kaempferol can be considered as a natural therapeutic agent with a differential profile.
- MAP kinase
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Materials Science(all)
- Process Chemistry and Technology
- Computer Science Applications
- Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes