Knowledge and perception towards anabolic steroid use by gym users in Jordan: a cross-sectional study

N. Izzat, R. Abu Farha, H. Alhamad, A. Akour

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


– OBJECTIVE: The dispensing of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) in Jordan is still unregulated, and AAS are available without a prescription. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of AAS abuse among gym users and their knowledge, perception, and practices towards using these AAS. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted online in November-December 2022. Participants were recruited if they were adults attending any gym facility in Jordan. RESULTS: A total of 365 adult participants agreed to participate in this study. Concerning participants’ knowledge about AAS side effects, the median knowledge score of the participants was 7.0 scores (Interquartile range=7.0) out of 15. Indeed, 14.2% of the participants (n=52) reported using AAS during their gym participation. Participants reported that the most common source for obtaining AAS was the gym trainers (n=38, 70.4%), and the most common reason for using AAS was to increase lean body weight (n=52, 96.3%). Also, among the AAS users, two-thirds reported having never experienced side effects after using AAS. Finally, regression analysis revealed that males had 3.35 times higher usage of AAS than females (OR=3.351, p-value=0.008). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study show a comparatively high prevalence of AAS use among gymgoers. Therefore, it is critical to have policies prohibiting their usage without a prescription. There should be more awareness about the negative effects of AAS in criminal activities, and it should be included in public awareness programs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8924-8933
Number of pages10
JournalEuropean review for medical and pharmacological sciences
Issue number18
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Anabolic steroids
  • Gym
  • Jordan
  • Knowledge
  • Perception
  • Practice

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)


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