Lactobacillus reuteri-fortified camel milk infant formula: Effects of encapsulation, in vitro digestion, and storage conditions on probiotic cell viability and physicochemical characteristics of infant formula

Mariam Algaithi, Priti Mudgil, Marwa Hamdi, Ali Ali Redha, Tholkappiyan Ramachandran, Fathalla Hamed, Sajid Maqsood

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Lactobacillus reuteri fortified camel milk infant formula (CMIF) was produced. The effect of encapsulation in different matrices (sodium alginate and galacto-oligosaccharides) via spray drying, simulated infant gastrointestinal digestion (SIGID), and storage conditions (temperature and humidity) on the viability of L. reuteri in CMIF and the physicochemical properties of CMIF were evaluated. Compared with free cells, probiotic cell viability was significantly enhanced against SIGID conditions upon encapsulation. However, L. reuteri viability in CMIF decreased after 60 d of storage, predominantly at higher storage humidity and temperature levels. At the end of the storage period, significant changes in the color values were observed in all CMIF, with a reduction in their greenness, an increase in yellowness, and a wide variation in their whiteness. Moreover, pH values and caking behavior of all CMIF stored at higher temperature (40°C) and humidity [water activity (aw) = 0.52] levels were found to be significantly higher than the samples stored under other conditions. Over 30 d of storage at lower humidity conditions (aw = 0.11 and 0.33) and room temperature (25°C), no significant increase in CMIF lipid oxidation rates was noted. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that, compared with the other storage conditions, CMIF experienced fewer changes in functional groups when stored at aw = 0.11. Microscopic images showed typical morphological characteristics of milk powder, with round to spherical-shaped particles. Overall, camel milk fortified with encapsulated L. reuteri can be suggested as a promising alternative in infant formula industries, potentially able to maintain its physicochemical characteristics as well as viability of probiotic cells when stored at low humidity levels (aw = 0.11) and temperature (25°C), over 60 d of storage.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)8621-8637
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Dairy Science
Volume105
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022

Keywords

  • camel milk infant formula
  • encapsulation
  • physicochemical characteristics
  • probiotic viability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Genetics

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