Limonene, a Monoterpene, Mitigates Rotenone-Induced Dopaminergic Neurodegeneration by Modulating Neuroinflammation, Hippo Signaling and Apoptosis in Rats

Lujain Bader Eddin, Sheikh Azimullah, Niraj Kumar Jha, Mohamed Fizur Nagoor Meeran, Rami Beiram, Shreesh Ojha

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Rotenone (ROT) is a naturally derived pesticide and a well-known environmental neurotoxin associated with induction of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Limonene (LMN), a naturally occurring monoterpene, is found ubiquitously in citrus fruits and peels. There is enormous interest in finding novel therapeutic agents that can cure or halt the progressive degeneration in PD; therefore, the main aim of this study is to investigate the potential neuroprotective effects of LMN employing a rodent model of PD measuring parameters of oxidative stress, neuro-inflammation, and apoptosis to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. PD in experimental rats was induced by intraperitoneal injection of ROT (2.5 mg/kg) five days a week for a total of 28 days. The rats were treated with LMN (50 mg/kg, orally) along with intraperitoneal injection of ROT (2.5 mg/kg) for the same duration as in ROT-administered rats. ROT injections induced a significant loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and DA striatal fibers following activation of glial cells (astrocytes and microglia). ROT treatment enhanced oxidative stress, altered NF-κB/MAPK signaling and motor dysfunction, and enhanced the levels/expressions of inflammatory mediators and proinflammatory cytokines in the brain. There was a concomitant mitochondrial dysfunction followed by the activation of the Hippo signaling and intrinsic pathway of apoptosis as well as altered mTOR signaling in the brain of ROT-injected rats. Oral treatment with LMN corrected the majority of the biochemical, pathological, and molecular parameters altered following ROT injections. Our study findings demonstrate the efficacy of LMN in providing protection against ROT-induced neurodegeneration.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5222
JournalInternational journal of molecular sciences
Volume24
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023

Keywords

  • Parkinson’s disease
  • dopaminergic neurons
  • limonene
  • monoterpenes
  • neurodegeneration
  • neuroinflammation
  • rotenone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Catalysis
  • Molecular Biology
  • Spectroscopy
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry

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