Lipid-lowering therapies for atherosclerosis: Statins, fibrates, ezetimibe and pcsk9 monoclonal antibodies

Adel Hajj Ali, Nour Younis, Rola Abdallah, Farah Shaer, Ali Dakroub, Mohammed Akli Ayoub, Rabah Iratni, Hadi Mohamad Yassine, Kazem Zibara, Alexander Orekhov, Ahmed Fawzy El-Yazbi, Ali H. Eid

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the primary cause of global morbidity and mortality. CVD includes various life-threatening conditions such as myocardial infarction, stroke and peripheral arterial diseases. In this context, atherosclerosis continues to play the principal role in the pathogenesis of these conditions. Atherosclerosis emanates from a set of modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors that include age, male gender, family history, obesity, smoking, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Recent evidence classifies atherosclerosis as a latent disease affecting all-sized arteries with a predilection for arterial branching points of decreased or absent blood supply. Atherosclerosis is not only a lipid metabolism disorder, but is also a chronic inflammatory one. This review providesa synoptic discussion of the underlying pathological mechanisms of atherosclerosis andthe currently applied therapeutic interventions. We then discuss the classical lipid-lowering therapies as well as the newly discovered therapies. For the classical therapies, we point out the importance of statins and ezetimibe in reducing plasma cholesterol levels by virtue of their effects on synthesis, reuptake and intestinal absorption of cholesterol. We also discuss the role of fibrates in modulating lipid metabolism and improving the ratio of high-density to low-density density lipoproteins. This study focuseson the more recent molecular and genetic interventions exemplified by proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) monoclonal antibodies, evinacumab, and microRNA inhibitors. Special attention is also given to clinical trials involving these therapies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7427-7445
Number of pages19
JournalCurrent Medicinal Chemistry
Issue number36
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2021


  • Atherosclerosis
  • Ezetimibe
  • Fibrates
  • MicroRNA inhibitors
  • Monoclonal antibodies for atherosclerosis
  • PCSK9 inhibitors
  • Statin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery
  • Organic Chemistry


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