Low temperature formation of hydroxyapatite-poly(alkyl oxybenzoate) phosphazene composites for biomedical applications

Y. E. Greish, J. D. Bender, S. Lakshmi, P. W. Brown, H. R. Allcock, C. T. Laurencin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

131 Citations (Scopus)


The formation of biodegradable composites which may be suitable as bone analogs is described. Polyphosphazene-hydroxyapatite (HAp) composites were produced via an acid-base reaction of tetracalcium phosphate and anhydrous dicalcium phosphate in the presence of polyphosphazenes bearing alkyl ester containing side-groups. The polyphosphazenes used were poly(ethyl oxybenzoate)phosphazene (PN-EOB) and poly(propyl oxybenzoate) phosphazene (PN-POB). The effects of temperature and the proportions of polymers, PN-EOB and PN-POB on the kinetics, reaction chemistry and phase evolution during the formation of stoichiometric HAp were studied. Kinetics, phase evolution and microstructural development were evaluated using isothermal calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Analysis of solution chemistry revealed that the increases in the pH during the formation of SHAp, resulted in partial hydrolysis of the polymer surfaces, which led in turn to the formation of a calcium cross-linked polymer surface. The calcium cross-linked polymer surface appeared to facilitate the nucleation and growth of apatite deposits on the polymer. The current study illustrates the in situ formation of HAp in the presence of polyphosphazenes, where HAp is chemically bonded to the polymer.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • Biomedical composites
  • Hydroxyapatite
  • Low temperature
  • Polyphosphazene

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Bioengineering
  • Biophysics
  • Biomaterials


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