Brominated benzenes and phenols constitute direct precursors in the formation of bromine-bearing pollutants; most notably PBDD/Fs and other dioxin-type compounds. Elucidating accurate mechanisms and constructing robust kinetic models for the oxidative transformation of bromobenzenes and bromophenols into notorious Br-toxicants entail a comprehensive understanding of their initial oxidation steps. However, pertinent mechanistic studies, based on quantum chemical calculations, have only focused on secondary condensation reactions into PBDD/Fs and PBDEs. Literature provide kinetic parameters for these significant reactions, nonetheless, without attempting to compile the acquired Arrhenius coefficients into kinetic models. To fill in this gap, this study sets out to illustrate primary chemical phenomena underpinning the low-temperature combustion of a monobromobenzene molecule (MBZ) based on a detail chemical kinetic model. The main aim is to map out temperature-dependent profiles for major intermediates and products. The constructed kinetic model encompasses several sub-mechanisms (i.e, HBr and benzene oxidation, bromination of phenoxy radicals, and initial reaction of oxygen molecules with MBZ). In light of germane experimental observations, the formulated kinetic model herein offers an insight into bromine speciation, conversion profile of MBZ, and formation of higher brominated congeners of benzene and phenol. For instance, the model satisfactorily accounts for the yields of dibromophenols from oxidation of a 2-bromophenol (2-MBP) molecule, in reference to analogous experimental measurements. From an environmental perspective, the model reflects the accumulation of appreciable loads of 2-bromophenoxy radicals at intermediate temperatures (i.e., a bromine-containing environmental persistent free radical, EPFR) from combustion of MBZ and 2-MBP molecules. Acquired mechanistic/kinetic parameters shall be useful in comprehending the complex bromine transformation chemistry in real scenarios, most notably those prevailing in thermal recycling of brominated flame retardants (BFRs).
- Kinetic model
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis