A facet of carcinoid tumors often not recognized is their close association with other, noncarcinoid malignancies. The clinical course of two patients with multiple ileal‐jejunal carcinoids and multiple other noncarcinoid malignancies is described. These patients were found to have elevated circulating levels of gastrin, bombesin, glucagon, enteroglucagon, pancreatic polypeptide, and peptide tyrosine tyrosine. These regulatory peptides have been demonstrated to promote trophic effects on the gastrointestinal tract as well as malignant tumors. We propose that the release of these bioactive hormones into the portal and systemic circulation by carcinoid tumors may play some role in their association with these multiple second tumors.
|Number of pages
|The American Journal of Gastroenterology
|Published - Feb 1989
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