The relationship between for humans, animals, and environment is balanced since human existence. Animal bites humans is a major neglected global health problem. Dog and cat bites are most common in USA and Europe, snake bites in east Asia, and crocodile and camel bites in Africa. We aim to lay the principles of managing these animal bites. Bites located on the hands, arms, and legs comprise 70–80% of animal bites. The head and neck are involved in 10–30%. The occurrence of wound infection depends on the nature and location of the wound, the patient’s immunity, and the type of attacking animal. Principles of managing animal bites include addressing immediate life-threatening injuries; taking a detailed history of the animal bite; evaluating tetanus and rabies risk; administering antibiotics and antivenom (when needed); wound debridement and revision; addressing the risk of necrotizing fasciitis and compartment syndrome, and finally delayed closure/skin graft and fracture management when the wound becomes clean. Using the Haddon matrix is very useful for injury prevention. It includes preventing the animal bite before it occurs, reducing its impact if it occurs, and treating it properly after it occurs.
|Title of host publication||Textbook of Emergency General Surgery|
|Subtitle of host publication||Traumatic and Non-traumatic Surgical Emergencies|
|Publisher||Springer International Publishing|
|Number of pages||10|
|Publication status||Published - Jan 1 2023|
ASJC Scopus subject areas