Mapping the evidence-based research on Ghana’s inclusive education to policy and practices: a scoping review

Maxwell Peprah Opoku, Christopher S. Rayner, Scott J. Pedersen, Monica Cuskelly

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


For the past 15 years (2003–2018), Ghana has followed international frameworks and taken steps to implement inclusive education. This has triggered research that seeks to assess effectiveness of practices by documenting the perspectives and experiences of key stakeholders such as parents and other educators. This study took stock of the research evidence to appraise the effectiveness of inclusive education practices, identify gaps in the literature and draw attention to areas that policymakers could strengthen to advance those practices. Adopting Ainscow and Miles’s (2009. Developing Inclusive Education Systems: How Can We Move Policies Forward. inclusive education measurement indicators as a conceptual framework, we reviewed empirical studies that have been conducted on inclusive education in Ghana since the policy was formally incorporated into the education system. Ten databases, along with manual searches in journals and the reference lists of selected articles, yielded a total of 426 studies, of which 35 satisfied the pre-determined inclusion and quality-assessment criteria. We found barriers to inclusive practices at all levels of education. Teachers in particular have not been adequately informed and supported to teach students with disabilities in regular classrooms. The implications of the findings for policymaking and future research are discussed in detail.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1157-1173
Number of pages17
JournalInternational Journal of Inclusive Education
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Ghana
  • Inclusive education
  • policy
  • practices
  • scoping review
  • stakeholder

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)


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