Mathematical modelling of infra-red evaporation characteristics of wheat straw black liquor

Surendra Pratap Singh, Mohammad Jawaid, Bhoomika Yadav, Mohd Supian Abu Bakar

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1 Citation (Scopus)


Infrared (IR) evaporation characteristics of Weak Soda Black Liquor (WSBL) were determined at five different temperatures of 80, 90, 100, 110 and 120oC. The effect of constant temperature on evaporation rate and moisture content (on a dry basis) of 1.5 gm approx. WSBL tests were contemplated and required a careful time frame of IR dissipation to vanish the dampness content at a different consistent temperature. The dissipation rate expanded with expanding infrared temperature. Therefore, different numerical models, such as Page and Logarithmic, Henderson, Pabis and Lewis, were utilised to fit the experimental data properly. A Gaussian model equation was developed for evaporation rate and moisture fraction of black liquor. The probable empirical parameters, along with the relating of reduced chi-square (X2), Residual Sum of Square (RSS), and coefficients of determination (adjusted R2) from non-linear regression analysis of all the numerical model equations, were examined. In addition, the effect of evaporation temperature on the water removal rate, the effective diffusion coefficient and activation energy were also estimated. The effective diffusion coefficient ranges from 2.67 × 10-10 m2/s to 10.4 × 10-10 m2/s, and the activation energy was 39.19 kJ/mol. The statistical indicators (chi-square and determination coefficient) showed that the Decay model equation and Gaussian equation are the most suitable models for describing the evaporation process of WSBL.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2845-2862
Number of pages18
JournalPertanika Journal of Science and Technology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Biomass
  • Black liquor
  • Evaporation
  • Viscosity
  • Wheat straw

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Computer Science
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • General Environmental Science
  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences


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