Measuring Thinking Creatively in Action and Movement in mentally retarded and non-retarded children

M. Efstratopoulou, Johan Simons, T. Kourtessis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The aim of this study was to estimate any possible differences in motor creativity abilities between children with and without mental retardation, as well as to investigate the relationship between motor creativity and non-verbal mental age. Based upon the estimation of the Colour Progressive Matrices (Raven, 1965), 20 children with mild mental retardation (11 boys and 9 girls) were matched for non-verbal mental age with 20 children (11 boys and 9 girls) without mental retardation. The Thinking Creatively in Action and Movement (TCAM) test by Torrance, (1986) was administered individually to measure fluency, originality and imagination. MANOVA analysis indicated no significant differences between the two groups for motor creativity measurements (F(2,18)=0.916, p=0.361). The non-verbal mental age of the mentally retarded group was significantly related to fluency scores (r=0.72, p<0.01) but not to originality or imagination scores. In addition, no gender differences in motor creativity were found in either group. Within the limitations of the current study, the findings suggest that motor creativity does not rely upon the intellectual ability of the children but that there are other important factors in the creative process. Possible factors that could influence motor creativity are discussed and suggestions for practical implications in educational or therapeutical settings are made.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)417-431
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Human Movement Studies
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Creative thinking
  • Mental retardation
  • Movement

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology


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