Mechanical and physical properties analysis of olive biomass and bamboo reinforced epoxy-based hybrid composites

Siti Noorbaini Sarmin, Mohammad Jawaid, Mohamed H. Mahmoud, Naheed Saba, Hassan Fouad, Othman Y. Alothman, Carlo Santulli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Olive biomass, which is regarded an agricultural waste that can be used as a reinforcement for polymeric composites, has piqued attention in the construction and building applications. These natural fibers offer cost-effective alternatives to traditional materials, and their use frequently results in immediate and long-term financial benefits. In this research work, to show the importance of hybridization, experimental assessment on mechanical behavior of olive waste/bamboo fiber hybrid composite was compared to olive and bamboo fiber-reinforced epoxy. Olive residues from different parts of the plant, namely olive tree small branch (OTS), olive tree big branch (OTB), and olive leaves (OTL), were prepared. Throughout this way, three hybrid olive/bamboo fiber-reinforced epoxy composites were obtained, OTS/B, OTB/B and OTL/B respectively at 40% total filler loading by weight (density 1.2 g/cm3) with 1:1 weight ratio between olive waste fiber and bamboo fiber (B). The hybrid composites exhibit enhanced mechanical properties compared to the homogenous composite, with tensile strength (31.28–37.09 MPa), flexural strength (56.70–65.64 MPa), and impact strength (9.87–11.76 J/m) respectively. Among the three hybrids, OTB/B presented the higher mechanical and impact properties, slightly superior with respect to OTS/B, whereas OTL/B was clearly inferior. Morphology of the tensile fracture on homogenous bamboo composite shows that lesser voids, microcracks, and fibers pull out due to strong fiber-matrix adhesion compared to olive fiber composites. As a conclusion, the olive/bamboo hybrid epoxy composite can be used in load-bearing construction applications such as floor panels and automotive interior, where lightweight and high strength are essential.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7959-7969
Number of pages11
JournalBiomass Conversion and Biorefinery
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • Bamboo
  • Epoxy
  • Hybrid composites
  • Mechanical properties
  • Olive tree biomass
  • Physical properties

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


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