Medication Adherence and Its Associated Determinants in Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular Comorbidities

Ahmad Al-Azayzih, Roaa J. Kanaan, Shoroq M. Altawalbeh, Walid Al-Qerem, Saja Smadi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Aims of the Study: To evaluate medication adherence level and identify predictors of poor medication adherence in elderly patients with Cardiovascular (CVS) diseases and type 2 diabetes in Jordan. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on elderly patients who attended King Abdullah University Hospital (KAUH) outpatient diabetes and cardiology clinics from March 6, 2023, to July 6, 2023. Data on age, sex, socio-demographics, biological variables, medication characteristics, and chronic comorbidities were obtained from electronic patients’ medical records and a validated questionnaire. Medication adherence levels (low, moderate, and high) were assessed using the Arabic version of the 4-item Morisky, Green, and Levine Medication Adherence Scale-Medication Assessment Questionnaire. Results: Data from 506 elderly patients were analyzed. The average age of the participants was 67.93 years (SD = 6.22). 7.9% of patients showed low adherence levels, 33.6% showed moderate adherence level, and 58.5% of patients showed a high level of adherence toward their prescribed medications. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed that single/currently unmarried patients and patients who were living with others were more likely to have a higher adherence level; Odd Ratios (ORs) were 4.75 and 4.10, respectively. Patients who took their medications ≥ 3 and 2 times a day showed higher adherence to their medications than those who only took them once a day.; ORs were 2.15 and 2.36, respectively. Conclusion: This study indicated an inadequate level of adherence among patients with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular comorbidities. This study revealed the necessity of implementing programs to help in raising the awareness among elderly patients with type 2 diabetes and CVDs of the importance of adherence to prescribed long-term medication regimens.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3107-3118
Number of pages12
JournalPatient Preference and Adherence
Publication statusPublished - 2023
Externally publishedYes


  • Jordan
  • cardiovascular diseases
  • diabetes
  • elderly
  • geriatrics
  • medication adherence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics (miscellaneous)
  • Health Policy


Dive into the research topics of 'Medication Adherence and Its Associated Determinants in Older Adults with Type 2 Diabetes and Cardiovascular Comorbidities'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this