Micro Crystalline Bamboo Cellulose Based Seaweed Biodegradable Composite Films for Sustainable Packaging Material

M. Hasan, Tze Kiat Lai, Deepu A. Gopakumar, M. Jawaid, F. A.T. Owolabi, E. M. Mistar, Tata Alfatah, N. Z. Noriman, M. K.M. Haafiz, H. P.S. Abdul Khalil

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

58 Citations (Scopus)


Abstract: This study is aimed to fabricate and characterize the seaweed- biodegradable films incorporated with varying concentrations of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) which was extracted from two bamboo sources: Schizostachyum brachycladum (BLMCC) and Gigantochloa scortechinii (BSMCC). Pure biodegradable seaweed film was directly fabricated from red seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii). In this demonstrated work, commercial MCC (CMCC), BLMCC and BSMCC were used to reinforce the pure seaweed bio-degradable film at different loading concentrations (0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15%) based on the dried-weight of seaweed, for packaging applications. There was substantial improvement in the tensile strength and contact angle values while reduction in the water vapor permeability and elongation at break values with the incorporation of the CMCC, BLMCC and BSMCC into the seaweed pure film matrix, which is highly desirable for the packaging material in the current scenario. The morphology of the fabricated films confirmed that there was good dispersion of the 7% of CMCC, 5% of BLMCC and 3% of BSMCC in the pure seaweed films, which resulted in the enhanced mechanical properties. So far, this is the first report on the microcrystalline cellulose based seaweed films with excellent mechanical properties, which makes them suitable for packaging application. The demonstrated work proved that both BSMCC and BLMCC based seaweed composite films have the huge potential to be used as biodegradable packaging material for wide range of applications. Graphical Abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1602-1612
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Polymers and the Environment
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 1 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • Composite films
  • Eco-friendly
  • Microcrystalline cellulose
  • Sustainable packaging material

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Materials Chemistry


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