Microwave-Vacuum Extraction Technique as a Green and Clean Label Technology: Kinetics, Efficiency Analysis, and Effect on Bioactive Compounds

Abdul Hameed, Abid Aslam Maan, Akmal Nazir, Usman Amin, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal Khan, Muhammad Usman Khan, Mohammad Ali Shariati, Maksim Rebezov, José M. Lorenzo

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    2 Citations (Scopus)


    Grape pomace is a rich source of bioactive compounds and dietary fiber. This study aims to valorize the grape pomace by microwave-vacuum-assisted drying and extraction, which is a novel, green, and clean label technology. The drying and extraction of bioactive compounds from the grape pomace was optimized using response surface methodology. Box-Behnken design was used for three process variables, i.e., time, power, and vacuum levels. The highest drying rate was observed (5.53 g/100 g min after 10 min of drying) at the combination of 80 W and 20 inHg. This combination significantly reduced the drying time (25%) and resulted in the highest yield (64.5%) of bioactive compounds. Equally, changes in moisture ratio behavior were rapid under these processing conditions. Furthermore, Midilli model (R2 = 0.999, RMSE = 0.002, SSE = 3.71 × 10−6) was the best to justify the fitness of experimental values with predicted values. In addition, the diffusion coefficient, activation energy, and extraction yield were increased with increase in power and pressure. The concentration of bioactive components was higher in dried pomace compared to the extract. The extraction was successfully achieved without the use of solvent and the characteristics of extracted phenolics remained unaltered. Based on these findings, the microwave-vacuum-assisted drying and extraction process can be claimed as a sustainable approach.

    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)525-540
    Number of pages16
    JournalFood Analytical Methods
    Issue number3
    Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023


    • Bioactive compounds
    • Grape pomace
    • Green extraction
    • Kinetics modeling
    • Microwave-vacuum drying

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Analytical Chemistry
    • Food Science
    • Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
    • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
    • Safety Research


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