Mixed compared with single-source proteins in high-protein diets affect kidney structure and function differentially in obese fa/fa Zucker rats

Jessay G. Devassy, Jennifer L. Wojcik, Naser H.M. Ibrahim, Peter Zahradka, Carla G. Taylor, Harold M. Aukema

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Questions remain regarding the potential negative effects of dietary high protein (HP) on kidney health, particularly in the context of obesity in which the risk for renal disease is already increased. To examine whether some of the variability in HP effects on kidney health may be due to source of protein, obese fa/fa Zucker rats were given HP (35% of energy from protein) diets containing either casein, soy protein, or a mixed source of animal and plant proteins for 12 weeks. Control lean and obese rats were given diets containing casein at normal protein (15% of energy from protein) levels. Body weight and blood pressure were measured, and markers of renal structural changes, damage, and function were assessed. Obesity alone resulted in mild renal changes, as evidenced by higher kidney weights, proteinuria, and glomerular volumes. In obese rats, increasing the protein level using the single, but not mixed, protein sources resulted in higher renal fibrosis compared with the lean rats. The mixed-protein HP group also had lower levels of serum monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, even though this diet further increased kidney and glomerular size. Soy and mixed-protein HP diets also resulted in a small number of damaged glomeruli, while soy compared with mixed-protein HP diet delayed the increase in blood pressure over time. Since obesity itself confers added risk of renal disease, an HP diet from mixed-protein sources that enables weight loss but has fewer risks to renal health may be advantageous.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)135-141
Number of pages7
JournalApplied Physiology, Nutrition and Metabolism
Volume42
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Fibrosis
  • High protein diet
  • Kidney health
  • Obesity
  • Protein source
  • Renal damage
  • Renal hypertrophy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Physiology
  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Physiology (medical)

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