Mixed Quantum-Classical Liouville Equation Treatment of Electronic Spectroscopy of Condensed Systems: Harmonic and Anharmonic Electron-Phonon Coupling

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


This Review integrates the use of electronic optical response function theory and the mixed quantum-classical (MQC) Liouville equation (MQCLE), thereby leading to electronic spectroscopy in MQC media. It further sheds light on the applicability, utility, and efficiency of the mixed quantum-classical dynamics (MQCD) formalism, which starts off with the MQCLE, in probing spectroscopy and dynamics of condensed systems, whereby quantum mechanics and classical mechanics are combined systematically. The author has been exploring and implementing MQCD to investigate electron-phonon coupling effects on electronic dephasing in harmonic and anharmonic systems by calculating linear and nonlinear optical transition analytically and numerically dipole moment time correlation functions in an MQC environment, thereby presenting an in depth spectral profile analysis and their shape and symmetry. The distinctive capability of the MQC time correlation functions is that ergodicity and stationarity properties are inherently satisfied as part of the mixed quantum-classical dynamics (MQCD) framework, unlike classical correlation functions. While some research groups have applied MQCLE to calculate vibrational spectra to study hydrogen-bonded complexes in a MQC environment and other groups calculated Optical response function to probe electron transfer dynamics using the basis mapping technique, the approach, purpose, rigor, applications, and path to the end results reported herein are different. Finally, the same framework is employed to study dissipative systems in the MQC limit, whereby the zero-phonon line adopts the correct width and eliminates its asymmetry. While the full quantum mechanical model, like the multimode Brownian oscillator (MBO) model, yields the correct width and inaccurate shape in the low-temperature limit, the MQCD formalism seems to produce an accurate zero-phonon profile. Nonlinear optical signals are also reviewed in MQC media to show the applicability and utility of this approach. The vibronic optical response functions developed here will account for geometry change, frequency change, and anharmonicity upon electronic excitation to accurately probe electronic dephasing, electron-phonon coupling, shape, and symmetry of profiles and present differences and similarities to the MBO model on pure electronic dephasing. Frequency change and anharmonicity are vitally crucial for accurately assessing electron-phonon coupling upon electronic excitation. This is an additional unique result obtained by the author to further demonstrate the applicability and utility of this approach over other approximation schemes in probing electronic dephasing including that of the MBO model.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Computer Science Applications
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry


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