Modeling different infectious phases of hepatitis B with generalized saturated incidence: An analysis and control

Tahir Khan, Fathalla A. Rihan, Muhammad Ibrahim, Shuo Li, Atif M. Alamri, Salman A. AlQahtani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Hepatitis B is one of the global health issues caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV), producing 1.1 million deaths yearly. The acute and chronic phases of HBV are significant because worldwide, approximately 250 million people are infected by chronic hepatitis B. The chronic stage is a long-term, persistent infection that can cause liver damage and increase the risk of liver cancer. In the case of multiple phases of infection, a generalized saturated incidence rate model is more reasonable than a simply saturated incidence because it captures the complex dynamics of the different infection phases. In contrast, a simple saturated incidence rate model assumes a fixed shape for the incidence rate curve, which may not accurately reflect the dynamics of multiple infection phases. Considering HBV and its various phases, we constructed a model to present the dynamics and control strategies using the generalized saturated incidence. First, we proved that the model is well-posed. We then found the reproduction quantity and model equilibria to discuss the time dynamics of the model and investigate the conditions for stabilities. We also examined a control mechanism by introducing various controls to the model with the aim to increase the population of those recovered and minimize the infected people. We performed numerical experiments to check the biological significance and control implementation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5207-5226
Number of pages20
JournalMathematical Biosciences and Engineering
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • epidemiological model
  • generalize saturated incidence
  • hepatitis B virus
  • multi-infection
  • numerical experiments
  • stability and control analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Modelling and Simulation
  • General Agricultural and Biological Sciences
  • Computational Mathematics
  • Applied Mathematics


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