Modeling of electric water heater and air conditioner for residential demand response strategy

Maytham S. Ahmed, Azah Mohamed, Raad Z. Homod, Hussain Shareef, Khairuddin Khalid

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Power consumption of household appliances has become a growing problem in recent years because of increasing load density in the residential sector. Improving the efficiency, reducing energy and use of building integrated renewable energy resources are the major key for home energy management. This paper focuses on the development of simulation models for two appliances, namely, an electric water heater (EWH) and air conditioning (AC) load for the purpose residential demand response (DR) applications. Residential DR refers to a program which offers incentives to homeowners who curtail their energy use during times of peak demand. EWH and AC have a great probability in executing residential DR programs because they consume more energy compare to other appliances and are frequently used on a daily basis. Load model designed according to operational and physical characteristics. Validations were made on the models against real data measurement and it is found to be an accurate model with mean average error of 0.0425 and mean square error of 0.3432 for EWH and mean average error of 0.1568 and mean square error of 0.3915 for AC respectively. Furthermore, the results give suggest and insight the need for control strategies to evaluate better performance in residential DR implementations.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9037-9046
Number of pages10
JournalInternational Journal of Applied Engineering Research
Issue number16
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • EWH loads
  • Energy efficiency
  • HVAC loads
  • Home energy management
  • Residential demand response
  • Smart appliance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Engineering


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