This article examines hepatitis B dynamics under distinct infection phases and multiple transmissions. We formulate the epidemic problem based on the characteristics of the disease. It is shown that the epidemiological model is mathematically and biologically meaningful of its well-posedness (positivity, boundedness, and biologically feasible region). The reproductive number is then calculated to find the equilibria and the stability analysis of the epidemic model is performed. A backward bifurcation is also investigated in the proposed epidemic problem. With the help of two control measures (treatment and vaccination), we develop control strategies to minimize the infected population (acute and chronic). To solve the proposed control problem, we utilize Pontryagin’s Maximum Principle. Some simulations are conducted to illustrate the investigation of the analytical work and the effect of control analysis.
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