Modified output during task-based pair interaction and group interaction

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4 Citations (Scopus)


This study investigated opportunities for Modified Output (MO) and the take-up of those opportunities by Non-Native Speakers (NNSs) during task-based pair and group interaction in response to self- and other-initiations. The population of the study consisted of 32 adult NNSs of English representing a variety of first language (L1) backgrounds. Data were collected through the same procedure for both interaction patterns using a decision making task. Pair interactions were audio-taped and group interactions were both audio- and video-taped. The results showed that pair interaction provided NNSs with quantitatively more opportunities for MO than group interaction. Conversely, the take-up of those opportunities was higher in the group condition than the pair condition in relation to the number of self-initiations in each situation. Results of the study were discussed in light of the current view of the role of MO in second language (L2) learning and the usefulness of self-initiated MOs in language learning. They were also discussed for pedagogical implications in a classroom situation. Finally, some limitations of the study were reported and suggestions for further research were made.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)351-382
Number of pages32
JournalJournal of Applied Linguistics
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Groupwork
  • Learner-learner interaction
  • Modified output
  • Pairwork
  • Second language acquisition
  • Task-based learning

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Language and Linguistics
  • Linguistics and Language


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