Monkeypox: Past, Present, and Future

Gulfaraz Khan, Nighat Perveen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


MonkeypoxMonkeypox (Mpox) is a zoonotic disease caused by a virus (monkeypox virusMonkeypox virus-MPV) belonging to the Poxviridae family. In humans, the disease has an incubation period of 5–21 days and then progresses in two phases, the prodromal phase and the rash phase. The prodromal phase is characterized by non-specific symptoms such as fever, muscle pain, malaise, lymphadenopathy, headache, and chills. Skin lesions appear in the rash phase of the disease. These lesions progress through different stages (macules, papules, vesicles, and pustules). In May 2022, WHO reported an outbreak of human Mpox in several countries which were previously Mpox-free. As per the CDC report of March 01, 2023, a total of 86,231 confirmed cases of Mpox and 105 deaths have been reported from 110 countries and territories across the globe. Notably, more than 90% of these countries were reporting Mpox for the first time. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that this outbreak was associated with the virus from the West African clade. However, most of the cases in this outbreak had no evidence of travel histories to MPV-endemic countries in Central or West Africa. This outbreak was primarily driven by the transmissionTransmission of the virus via intimate contact in men who have sex with men (MSM). The changing epidemiologyEpidemiology of Mpox raised concerns about the increasing spread of the disease in non-endemic countries and the urgent need to control and prevent it. In this chapter, we present all the documented cases of Mpox from 1970 to 2023 and discuss the past, present, and future of MPV.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Number of pages20
Publication statusPublished - 2024

Publication series

NameAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
ISSN (Print)0065-2598
ISSN (Electronic)2214-8019


  • Distribution
  • Epidemiology
  • Monkeypox
  • Monkeypox virus
  • MPV strains
  • Prevalence
  • Transmission

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Biochemistry,Genetics and Molecular Biology


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