Monkeypox Virus: A Comprehensive Overview of Viral Pathology, Immune Response, and Antiviral Strategies

Shiza Malik, Amna Ahmed, Omar Ahsan, Khalid Muhammad, Yasir Waheed

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Background: The years 2022–2023 witnessed a monkeypox virus (mpox) outbreak in some countries worldwide, where it exists in an endemic form. However, the number of infectious cases is continuously on the rise, and there has been an unexpected, drastic increase in cases that result from sustained transmission in non-endemic regions of the world. Under this scenario, it is pertinent for the world to be aware of healthcare threats to mpox infection. This review aimed to compile advanced data regarding the different aspects of mpox disease. Methods: A comprehensive strategy for the compilation of recent data was adopted to add data regarding mpox, biology, viral pathology, immune response, and brief details on the antiviral strategies under trial; the search was limited to 2016–2023. The aim is to make the scientific community aware of diverse aspects of mpox. Results: Consequently, detailed insights have been drawn with regard to the nature, epidemiology, etiology, and biological nature of mpox. Additionally, its host interaction and viral infectious cycle and immune interventions have been briefly elaborated. This comprehensively drawn literature review delivers brief insights into the biological nature, immune responses, and clinical developments in the form of therapeutics against mpox. This study will help scientists understand the biological nature and responses in hosts, which will further help clinicians with therapeutic handling, diagnosis, and treatment options. Conclusions: This study will provide updated information on mpox’s pathology, immune responses, and antiviral strategies. Moreover, it will also help the public to become educated on the healthcare-associated threat and take timely mitigation measures against expected mpox outbreaks in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1345
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2023


  • immune responses
  • monkeypox virus (mpox)
  • outbreak
  • poxviruses
  • therapeutics
  • vaccines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Pharmacology
  • Drug Discovery
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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