Motorized 2–3 wheelers death rates over a decade: a global study

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8 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Motorized 2–3-wheelers-related death is high due to the exposed body of the driver/passenger and the high speed. The United Nation (UN) Decade of Action for road safety aimed to reduce road traffic deaths by 50% by the year 2020. We aimed to study the factors affecting the death rates of motorized 2–3 wheelers injured victims and whether the reduction in the death rates has met the UN target. Methods: Data were retrieved from the WHO Global Status Reports on Road Safety published over 2009 to 2018 which covered the years of 2007 to 2016. Studied variables included motorized 2–3 wheelers death rates, percentage of helmet-wearing rate, helmet law enforcement, speed law enforcement, gross national income per capita, vehicles/person ratio, and motorized 2–3 wheelers/person ratio. A mixed linear model was used to define factors affecting the change of motorized 2–3 wheelers death rates over time. Results: The global mean motorized 2–3 wheelers death rates increased from 2.37/100,000 population to 3.23/100,000 population over the studied decade (a relative ratio of 1.36) which was not statistically significant. Factors that affected mortality included GNI (p = 0.025), motorized 2–3 wheelers per person ratio (p < 0.0001), percentage of helmet wearing rate (p = 0.046), and the interaction between vehicle/person ratio and motorized 2–3 wheelers/person ratio (p = 0.016). There was a significant increase in the death rates over time in the low-income countries (a relative ratio of 2.52, p = 0.019, Friedman test), and middle-income countries (a relative ratio of 1.46, p < 0.0001, Friedman test), compared with a significant decrease in the high-income countries (a relative ratio of 0.72, p < 0.0001, Friedman test). Conclusions: Global mortality of motorized 2–3 wheelers has increased by a relative ratio of 1.36 over a recent decade. The UN target of reducing death was not met. The increase was related to the increase in motorized 2–3 wheelers per person ratio and economic inequity which has to be addressed globally. The economic global gap significantly impacts the mortality rates of motorized 2–3 wheelers.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7
JournalWorld Journal of Emergency Surgery
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • 2–3 Wheelers
  • Death
  • Global
  • Motorcycle
  • Road safety
  • Road traffic collision

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Emergency Medicine


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