M4X3 MXenes: Application in Energy Storage Devices

Iftikhar Hussain, Waqas Ul Arifeen, Shahid Ali Khan, Sikandar Aftab, Muhammad Sufyan Javed, Sajjad Hussain, Muhammad Ahmad, Xi Chen, Jiyun Zhao, P. Rosaiah, Khaled Fahmi Fawy, Adnan Younis, Sumanta Sahoo, Kaili Zhang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


MXene has garnered widespread recognition in the scientific community due to its remarkable properties, including excellent thermal stability, high conductivity, good hydrophilicity and dispersibility, easy processability, tunable surface properties, and admirable flexibility. MXenes have been categorized into different families based on the number of M and X layers in Mn+1Xn, such as M2X, M3X2, M4X3, and, recently, M5X4. Among these families, M2X and M3X2, particularly Ti3C2, have been greatly explored while limited studies have been given to M5X4 MXene synthesis. Meanwhile, studies on the M4X3 MXene family have developed recently, hence, demanding a compilation of evaluated studies. Herein, this review provides a systematic overview of the latest advancements in M4X3 MXenes, focusing on their properties and applications in energy storage devices. The objective of this review is to provide guidance to researchers on fostering M4X3 MXene-based nanomaterials, not only for energy storage devices but also for broader applications. (Figure presented.)

Original languageEnglish
Article number215
JournalNano-Micro Letters
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2024


  • 2D materials
  • Energy storage
  • MX MXenes
  • MXene
  • Properties

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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