Multi-person tracking and crowd behavior detection via particles gradient motion descriptor and improved entropy classifier

Faisal Abdullah, Yazeed Yasin Ghadi, Munkhjargal Gochoo, Ahmad Jalal, Kibum Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


To prevent disasters and to control and supervise crowds, automated video surveillance has become indispensable. In today’s complex and crowded environments, manual surveillance and monitoring systems are inefficient, labor intensive, and unwieldy. Automated video surveillance systems offer promising solutions, but challenges remain. One of the major challenges is the extraction of true foregrounds of pixels representing humans only. Furthermore, to accurately understand and interpret crowd behavior, human crowd behavior (HCB) systems require robust feature extraction methods, along with powerful and reliable decision-making classifiers. In this paper, we describe our approach to these issues by presenting a novel Particles Force Model for multi-person tracking, a vigorous fusion of global and local descriptors, along with a robust improved entropy classifier for detecting and interpreting crowd behavior. In the proposed model, necessary preprocessing steps are followed by the application of a first distance algorithm for the removal of background clutter; true-foreground elements are then extracted via a Particles Force Model. The detected human forms are then counted by labeling and performing cluster estimation, using a K-nearest neighbors search algorithm. After that, the location of all the human silhouettes is fixed and, using the Jaccard similarity index and normalized cross-correlation as a cost function, multi-person tracking is performed. For HCB detection, we introduced human crowd contour extraction as a global feature and a particles gradient motion (PGD) descriptor, along with geometrical and speeded up robust features (SURF) for local features. After features were extracted, we applied bat optimization for optimal features, which also works as a pre-classifier. Finally, we introduced a robust improved entropy classifier for decision making and automated crowd behavior detection in smart surveillance systems. We evaluated the performance of our proposed system on a publicly available benchmark PETS2009 and UMN dataset. Experimental results show that our system performed better compared to existing well-known state-of-the-art methods by achieving higher accuracy rates. The proposed system can be deployed to great benefit in numerous public places, such as airports, shopping malls, city centers, and train stations to control, supervise, and protect crowds.

Original languageEnglish
Article number628
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2021


  • Bat optimization
  • Human crowd behavior (HCB)
  • Improved entropy (IE)
  • Jaccard similar-ity
  • Multi-person counting
  • Particles gradient motion (PGM)
  • Speeded up robust features (SURF)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Information Systems
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • General Physics and Astronomy
  • Mathematical Physics
  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)


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