Nanoparticle aggregation effect on nonlinear convective nanofluid flow over a stretched surface with linear and exponential heat source/sink

Sawan Kumar Rawat, Moh Yaseen, Anum Shafiq, Manoj Kumar, Qasem M. Al-Mdallal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


A nanofluid flow (TiO2/Ethylene Glycol) over a stretched surface caused by the considerable nonlinear convection is investigated with the nanoparticle aggregation effect in the presence of quadratic thermal radiation. The modified Maxwell model and Bruggeman model are utilized, which depict the nanoparticle aggregation effect. In addition, the system employs two separate variable heat sources i.e., linear heat source and exponential heat source. The similarity transformations are utilized to convert the basic governing PDEs to ODEs. The “bvp4c function” in MATLAB is used to numerically handle the resultant nonlinear system. The impact of the involved parameters is explored on the non-dimensional fields of velocity boundary layer patterns, velocity, streamlines, temperature, and heat transfer rate. Graphs compare and display the control of pertinent parameters on the distinct flow properties. A comparison of the behavior of the solution profiles with and without the influence of nanoparticle aggregation is illustrated. The nanoparticle aggregates significantly enhance the velocity and heat transmission mechanism. Furthermore, the influence of varied heat sources (linear and exponential) aids in growing the thermal boundary layer. Nanofluid flow with nanoparticle aggregation has a 5.36% higher Nusselt number value in comparison to flow without aggregation effect when the volume fraction of nanoparticles is varied from 0 to 0.1. The results of the study will be helpful in the fields where applications of a continuously stretching/shrinking surface are used like in many engineering processes and industries, glass-fiber production, aerodynamic extrusion of plastic sheets, and manufacturing of paper and rubber sheets.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100355
JournalInternational Journal of Thermofluids
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2023


  • Linear and exponential heat sources
  • Nanoparticle aggregation
  • Nonlinear convection
  • Porous medium
  • Quadratic thermal radiation
  • Stretched surface
  • Suction/injection
  • TiO/EG nanofluid

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes


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